The Chavin culture developed in the northern Andean highlands of Peru from 900 BC to 200 BC. It extended its influence to other civilizations along the coast. the best-known archaeological site for the Chavín culture is Chavín de Huántar, located in the Andean highlands of the present-day Ancash Region. It is believed to have been built around 900 BC and was the religious and political center of the Chavín people. It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
East of Chiclayo you have the Chachapoyan culture - the "People of the Clouds". The main site for visitors is the fortress of Kuelap, but there are many more sites to see and many that are unexcavated.
In the desert area south of Lima, in the vicinity of Ica, you find remnants of the Paracas culture (c. 900 BC– 400 AD). These people wrapped the mummified corpses of their deceased, along with funeral offerings, in embroidered cloaks, which are among the finest examples of the art of textile making. The multicolored designs on these textiles bear a definite relationship to those of painted pottery of the later Nazca culture (200 BC - 600 AD).
There are so many different tribes in the Amazon that I'm not even going to get into that. Because of the jungle, there's not much to see in the way of ancient ruins or artifacts there anyway.
So, as you can see, if you are interested in experiencing various cultures, there are many options in Peru.