It's affecting parts of Brazil that had not been at risk of yellow fever spread in decades, so even frequent travelers to Brazil need to be aware. "Anyone 9 months or older who travels to these areas should be vaccinated against yellow fever," the CDC said in the new alert. "People who have never been vaccinated against yellow fever should not travel to areas with ongoing outbreaks."
Most people don't need a booster shot if they've been vaccinated once, the CDC said.
"However, a booster dose may be given to travelers who received their last dose of yellow fever vaccine at least 10 years ago and who will be in a higher-risk setting, including areas with ongoing outbreaks," it said.
"Because of the ongoing outbreak, travelers to the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, and parts of Bahia, Sao Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro states may consider getting a booster if their last yellow fever vaccination was more than 10 years ago. Because of a shortage of yellow fever vaccine, travelers may need to contact a yellow fever vaccine provider well in advance of travel."
So far, only the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and São Paulo have confirmed cases of the disease.
- The Amazon area around Manaus
- Iguassu Falls
- Salvador and Chapada Diamantina -Although the State of Bahia has boundaries with the State of Minas Gerais in the Southeast region, there are no cases recorded so far in Bahia. So far, there have not been recorded cases of yellow fever in the Chapada, and especially in the city of Lençois.
- by about June (winter) the mosquitoes won't be much of a problem in Rio, Sao Paulo, etc., like every year.
It cannot be eradicated since it not only infects people, but monkeys and other animals too, so the mosquitoes that spread it can be re-infected even if the population's vaccinated. It's spread both by the urban Aedes species and by jungle-dwelling Haemogogus mosquitoes.
Brazilian health officials are conducting mass vaccination campaigns now and working to eradicate Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in cities and towns. “Climate change, the mobility of people within and across borders, and the resurgence of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, have combined to increase the likelihood of yellow fever epidemics.”
Travelers to areas affected by yellow fever, dengue or Zika are advised to protect themselves against bites by using mosquito repellant, preferably one containing DEET, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE), IR3535, or 2-undecanone (methyl nonyl ketone).
Long sleeves and long trousers can also protect. "Use permethrin-treated clothing and gear (such as boots, pants, socks, and tents). You can buy pre-treated clothing and gear or treat them yourself," CDC advises.